Lesson 84

Beginning Prayers:
  • शुक्लाम्बरधरं विष्णुम् - shuklaambaradharaM viShNum
  • सरस्वति नमस्तुभ्यम् - saraswati namastubhyam 
  • गुरुर्ब्रह्मा गुरुर्विष्णुः - gururbrahmaa gururviShNuH 
Topic Summary:
  • Revision of essential rules
  • An interesting verse!
Home Work:
Topic Details:
What makes a word?  In sanskrit, the definition is very simple
     * सुप्‌तिङ्गन्तं पदम् -  patan~jali
        That which ends with a sup or ti~ng pratyaya is a word

For further details and explanation - Click here.

Revisiting the essential rules every once in a while works as whetting a knife :).  So, to sharpen the rules learnt so far, let us revisit some of the topics.

Sandhi would be one such topic.  It is very essential as the very first step after reading a verse would be, breaking the sandhi-s.  Without that, interpreting anything would be difficult.  There are many kind of sandhi-s.  The most commonly seen ones would be

Click on each of the names to learn them individually or click here to see ALL of them.

Let us see a verse now.  This is an interesting verse, one of my favorites -

केशवं पतितं दृष्ट्वा
पाण्डवाः हर्षनिर्भराः ।
रुदन्ति कौरवास्सर्वे
हा हा केशव केशव ॥
keshavaM patitaM dRuShTvaa
paaNDavaaH harShanirbharaaH |
rudanti kauravaassarve
haa haa keshava keshava ||

This one's a spinner!
Breaking sandhi-s,

केशवं पतितं दृष्ट्वा
पाण्डवाः हर्ष-निर्भराः ।
रुदन्ति कौरवाः सर्वे
हा हा केशव केशव ॥
keshavaM patitaM dRuShTvaa
paaNDavaaH harSha-nirbharaaH |
rudanti kauravaaH sarve
haa haa keshava keshava ||

Seeing the fallen keshava,
the paaNDava-s were filled with ecstasy
All the kaurava-s were crying
O keshava, O keshava!

Hmmm..., interesting scenario, isn't it?!!  The paaNDava-s rejoicing whereas kaurava-s lamenting for keshava?!!  Almost looks like the poet made a mistake in placing the words!  (keshava is one of the many names of Lord kRuShNa.  He was called so after he slayed a demon named keshi.)

Well, let's see some special words in the verse here -
केशव if split as के शव means
     के (seventh case of कं shabda) - in the water
     शव - cadaver (dead body)
           dead body in the water
पा अण्डवाः
     पा - water
     अण्डवाः - those born from eggs
             fish are born in the water from eggs
कौ रवाः
     कौ - horrible
     रवाः - noise
             wolves/fox howl with a horrible cry

Now, the meaning becomes,
On seeing the cadaver fallen in the water, the fish were ecstatic (that was a feast for them) whereas the wolves were lamenting as they could not get a bite of the dead body in the water!

Phew, now that makes more sense, doesn't it :).

Until next lesson, happy practicing!

Ending prayer:
  •  ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदम् - om pUrNamadaH pUrNamidam